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Application Methods

Method Name

Manual/Chemical

Definition

Tools

Synonyms

Aerial Ball Sprayer

Chemical

Foliar application of herbicide, via helicopter. A ball sprayer is a heavy metal cone, outfitted with 1 or more spray nozzles, attached to a helicopter by a long line. Tanks of herbicide are strapped to the helicopter, and connected by a hose to the ball sprayer. The pilot positions the ball sprayer over the target weeds, and turns the ball sprayer on and off from the cockpit. This technique is useful in remote or steep areas.

Helicopter, Ball Sprayer rig.

N/A

Aerial Boom Sprayer

Chemical

Foliar applicaiton of herbicide, via helicopter. Boom sprayers are long tubes outfitted with many nozzles, attached to either a helicopter or small plane. Herbicide is held in tanks in the aircraft. This technique is commonly used in agriculture. The pilot flies back and forth in a regular pattern across the area to be sprayed, and operates the spray equipment to evenly spray the entire area.

Helicopter, Boom Sprayer rig.

N/A

Basal Bark

Chemical

Herbicide is applied in a thin line around the entire circumference of the trunk or stem at the base of the plant, within 6" of ground (called the basal bark). No cutting is done. Generally, this technique is used on stem/trunks less than 3" in diameter, although there are some exceptions. [Oil-diluted, high-concentration herbicide, high-volume application directed at the base of main stems.]

Wash bottle, spray bottle

N/A

Clip and Drip

Chemical

Cut stems of shrubs/small trees close to the ground. Apply herbicide to cut stem. Generally, this technique is used when stems are less than 2" in diameter and easily cut with clippers or loppers. [Oil-diluted or undiluted, high-concentration herbicide, high-volume application directed at the cambium of the cut stump surface.]

Clippers, handsaw, loppers

Similar to 'Cut Stump', which is same technique applied to trunks greater than 3-6" in diameter.

Cut Only

Manual

Trunk of tree/shrub is cut through completely, felling it. No herbicide applied to stump. Effective only on certain species.

Chainsaw, handsaw, machete, hatchet

N/A

Cut Stump

Chemical

Tree/shrub is cut down near the ground, felling it. Herbicide is applied to the cut surface of the stump, focusing on the ring of cambium around the outer edge of the stump (sometimes herbicide applied across all of cut stump, especially for smaller trunks/stems). Used on a variety of sizes of stems/trunks. [Oil-diluted or undiluted, high-concentration herbicide, high-volume application directed at the cambium of the cut stump surface.]

Chainsaw, handsaw, machete, hatchet.  Wash or spray bottle.

Similar to 'Clip & Drip', which is the same technique applied to trunks less than 2-3" in diameter.

Dig

Manual

Dig up roots/rhizomes/corms of plant. Cut off leafy material. Root material may be bagged and hiked out of field, or hung in trees (if regrowth unlikely), or mounded to discourage resprouts and encourage break down.

Trowels, shovels, spades, picks.  Buckets, bags, tarps.

N/A

Drill

Chemical

Drill evenly spaced holes around entire circumference of tree trunk. Spacing between holes can be as close as 1", but may vary with species. Holes should be drilled at a downward angle, to prevent herbicide running out. Holes should be deep enough to reach growing tissue/cambium. Fill holes with herbicide.

Gas-powered drill, electric drill, hand-crank drill, tree step drill. Wash or spray bottle.

N/A

Foliar Spray

Chemical

Herbicide is applied to foliage/leaf surfaces using spray equipment. Sometimes the spray must be applied to as much leaf area as possible, although the herbicide should not drip off the sprayed plant. Sometimes large-droplet sprays may be used, and these don't coat all leaf surfaces, but create a spatter across them. Foliar sprays are often used on grasses or thick patches of understory weeds. [Water-diluted, low-concentration herbicide, high-volume application broadcast directed to leaf surfaces.]

Backpack sprayer (3-5 gal capacity, with hand pump or compressed air pump), handpump sprayer (various sizes, with wand or without), hand sprayer. Power sprayer (gas engine or battery pump, with tank, hoses, wand).

N/A

Frill

Chemical

See Girdle. Generally Frill highlights the need to create an angled lower edge to the girdle cut, where the herbicide can sit until it has absorbed.

Hatchet, machete, ax, handsaw.

See Girdle

Gridle

Chemical

Girdle the bark around the entire circumference of the tree trunk. This means removing at least a 1" strip of bark all the way around (wider than 1" is fine). If possible, create a ledge at the lower edge of the girdle; this is easy to do with a hatchet, and creates a place for herbicide to sit. Apply herbicide to the the girdle, focusing on the lower edge of the cut, on the cambium.

Brawn. Weed wrench. 

See Frill

Gridle Only

Manual

Girdle the bark around the entire circumference of the tree trunk. This means removing at least a 1" strip of bark all the way around (wider than 1" is fine). No herbicide is applied to the cut. Effective only on certian species.

Hatchet, ax, machete. 

N/A

Hack and Squirt

Chemical

This method requires that you use a hatchet or similar tool to cut through the thick bark of a tree and into the sapwood. After hacking around the entire circumference of the tree, 1 squirt (approximately 1 ml) of herbicide should be placed in each cut. This technique is similar to both IPA and Girdle, but is not as measured as IPA and doesn't call for an entire, unbroken strip of bark to be removed like Girdle.

Hatchet, ax, machete. Wash or spray bottle.

Similar to IPA, but more casual (sloppy IPA)

Hand Pull

Manual

Pulling out entire plant from ground. May be done with a weed wrench or by hand. Most commonly used on small understory weeds.

Paintball marker, projectiles.

N/A

Herbicide Ballistic

Chemical

Treating plants with herbicide-filled projectiles, using a paintball marker. May be done from air or ground. Contact Dr. James Leary, CTAHR, for more information and to use this method.

N/A

Hatchet, ax, machete. Wash or spray bottle.

Incision Point

Chemical

Best used on trees (trunks greater than 6" diameter, although can be used on smaller trees in 3-6" diameter range). Make distinct cuts using hatchet or similar tool, spaced at a defined interval (usually 10-20cm, although varies by species) around the diameter of a tree. The cuts should be angled into the bark, creating a gap on the top of the cut. Place 0.5mL herbicide into each cut.

Hatchet/machete. Modified hydropack with calibrated squirt gun, sheep drencher, dropper bottle (herbicide applicator should allow you to measure how much you are applying).

Similar to Hack & Squirt, but more carefully measured; similar to Injection.

Injection

Chemical

This technique is described in different ways in various guides and herbicide labels. Often, it refers to using a needle/syringe system to inject a set amount of herbicide into a target weed, especially hollow-stem weeds. It may also refer to EZ-Ject systems, which force a capsule of herbicide into a tree. Most generally, it describes using specialized equipment to inject herbicide into a target weed without using cutting tools like hatchets. [Water-diluted, high-concentration herbicide, low-volume application directed into the cambium of main stems.]

Syringe and needle, EZ-Ject system.

Similar to IPA

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